Pollen tube growth regulation by free anions depends on the interaction between the anion channel SLAH3 and calcium-dependent protein kinases CPK2 and CPK20.
|Title||Pollen tube growth regulation by free anions depends on the interaction between the anion channel SLAH3 and calcium-dependent protein kinases CPK2 and CPK20.|
|Publication Type||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication||2013|
|Authors||Gutermuth T, Lassig R, Portes M-T, Maierhofer T, Romeis T, Borst J-W, Hedrich R, Feijó JA, Konrad KR|
|Date Published||2013 Nov|
Apical growth in pollen tubes (PTs) is associated with the presence of tip-focused ion gradients and fluxes, implying polar localization or regulation of the underlying transporters. The molecular identity and regulation of anion transporters in PTs is unknown. Here we report a negative gradient of cytosolic anion concentration focused on the tip, in negative correlation with the cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration. We hypothesized that a possible link between these two ions is based on the presence of Ca(2+)-dependent protein kinases (CPKs). We characterized anion channels and CPK transcripts in PTs and analyzed their localization. Yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) tagging of a homolog of SLOW ANION CHANNEL-ASSOCIATED1 (SLAH3:YFP) was widespread along PTs, but, in accordance with the anion efflux, CPK2/CPK20/CPK17/CPK34:YFP fluorescence was strictly localized at the tip plasma membrane. Expression of SLAH3 with either CPK2 or CPK20 (but not CPK17/CPK34) in Xenopus laevis oocytes elicited S-type anion channel currents. Interaction of SLAH3 with CPK2/CPK20 (but not CPK17/CPK34) was confirmed by Förster-resonance energy transfer fluorescence lifetime microscopy in Arabidopsis thaliana mesophyll protoplasts and bimolecular fluorescence complementation in living PTs. Compared with wild-type PTs, slah3-1 and slah3-2 as well as cpk2-1 cpk20-2 PTs had reduced anion currents. Double mutant cpk2-1 cpk20-2 and slah3-1 PTs had reduced extracellular anion fluxes at the tip. Our studies provide evidence for a Ca(2+)-dependent CPK2/CPK20 regulation of the anion channel SLAH3 to regulate PT growth.
|Alternate Journal||Plant Cell|
|PubMed Central ID||PMC3875734|